THE DECOLONISATION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE (Part 4)

‘The Moor’s Last Sigh’ is an example for Rushdie’s cleverness and brilliance in using language though at some places it appears contrived. Rushdie in this novel has constantly and consciously attempted to exoticise the language of his fiction, probably wishing to amuse and entertain the western readers. The literary gymnastics of Rushdie can be realised by considering the following passages:

“One day you will killofy my heart.”

“Patience is a virtue. I’ll just bide-o my time.”

“ ‘I’ll give you one chapat,’ she promised, ‘that will breakofy the teeth in your cheeky face.’ ”

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THE DECOLONISATION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE (Part 3)

LANGUAGE (Part 3)

The Canadian critic Neil Ten Kortenaar, who is engaged in an extensive study of the various aspects of Midnight’s Children, has recently compiled a long list of all the Indian words, phrases and allusions in the novel. The list includes names of places like Amul Diaries, Bandung, Chhamb, Dadar etc., which amounts to a total of 144 such names; names of historical figures that includes A.V. Alexander, Catherine of Braganza, Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira, Khusrovand, Sabarmati, and Maneka Gandhi – a total of 178 names; words from Indian languages baap-re-baap, bhang, badmash, charas, dhobi, laddoo, falooda, etc., – a total of 223 such words; words connected with religion like Shiva-lingam, puja, Atharva-veda, Gandhara, sadhu, Kali-yuga, etc., making up of a total of 112 such words; literary and cultural allusions which includes names like Arjuna India Bike, Mumba Devi, Filmfare, Ranji etc., – a total of 139. University teachers

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THE DECOLONISATION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE (Part 2)

Midnight’s Children is a successful fusion of East and West in the terms of form and context. Rushdie employs the narrative technique of the rural Indian oral storytellers and the textual form of Western fiction. He achieves the amalgamation of the literary elements of the ‘East’ and the ‘West’ in terms of narrative technique and form in Midnight’s Children. He also adopts a new form of hybrid Post-colonial text – the hybrid referring to the amalgamation of the Western style of writing and Eastern style of story telling. Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children is the first deliberate attempt in Post-colonial Fiction, with regard to the aspect in decolonising the English language. Public Service

Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children is hailed as a classic in Post-colonial Literature. There emerged a gifted, glittering novelist – one with startling and imaginative and intellectual resources, a master of story telling with the publication of Midnight’s Children. In a much quoted New York Times article, Clark Blaise, a famous American critic wrote that in Rushdie’s writing the whole subcontinent has found its voice.

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THE DECOLONISATION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE (Part 1)

LANGUAGE (Part 1)

Post-colonialism has emerged as one of the most exciting and challenging fields of study in recent years. Harish Trivedi, a noted Indian critic, sums up the phenomenal rise of Post-colonial Literature as follows: “Of all the terms of academic discourse which have risen to ascendancy successively over the last two or three decades, perhaps none has done so more quickly and completely, more glibly and globally than Post-colonialism”. Post-colonial writing has in the recent years become a process of overturning the dominance of the Empire from the colonies. If colonialism involved ‘colonising the mind ’, then the resistance to it required, in the contemporary Kenyan novelist Ngugi wa Thiongo’s phrase the terminology of ‘decolonising the mind ’. As Salman Rushdie, one of the pre-eminent Postcolonial writers puts it: “The language like so much else in the colonies, needs to be decolonised, to be remade in other images, if those of us who use it from positions outside Anglo-Saxon culture are to be more than artistic Uncle Toms”. Language is more than simply a means of communication; it constitutes our world-view by splitting up and arranging our sense of social reality into meaningful units. Payday Loans Online

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DETERMINANTS OF PERCEIVED FLOW: CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSIONS

As mobile services continue to grow rapidly, mobile SNS are widely adopted by users as social networking because it is an activity that is part of most people’s everyday lives, as users create and maintain various social ties. This research examines the determinants of perceived enjoyment, control and attention focus as aspects of the software interaction concept of flow, system quality, information quality and trust on mobile SNS users’ loyalty. Results confirmed that both perceived information quality and perceived system quality are determinant of perceived user trust and perceived flow, which further determine users’ loyalty towards mobile SNS. Indeed, perceived flow has a larger correlation on user’s loyalty, indicating perceived flow as the strongest determinant of users’ loyalty on mobile SNS. Mobile SNS providers need to consider user perceived flow to enhance users’ loyalty. Thus, mobile SNS providers should implement steps to increase the perceived information quality and perceived system quality in order to build and enhance users’ trust level and further provide users with a compelling experience. They may need to emphasize loyalty programme in an attempt to retain customers in the competitive telecommunication market.

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DETERMINANTS OF PERCEIVED FLOW: DISCUSSIONS

DISCUSSIONS

Wong and Hsu (2008) mentioned that the quality of the information posted on the company website or mobile portal has a direct impact on potential customers’ perception of its products and services. In another study of mobile banking, Luo, Li, Zhang, and Shim (2010) mentioned that potential users who have insufficient information may vary in their readiness to trust wireless banking facilities in the open airwaves. Thus, if the information quality of mobile SNS are perceived as good, a user will have higher trust in the mobile SNS platform. When the individual feels a system is useful, he or she thinks positively about it (Davis, 1989). Likewise, Sledgianowski and Kulviwat (2009) found that user’s thinking as to the usefulness of a system has great influence and is positively related to adoption of information technology. Therefore, it can be said that a mobile SNS platform that has good system quality will generate higher user trust.

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DETERMINANTS OF PERCEIVED FLOW: FACTOR ANALYSIS

FACTOR ANALYSIS

Factor analysis using varimax rotation was performed to measure construct of perceived flow which combined three dimensions: perceived enjoyment, perceived control and attention focus. Previous research has found significant correlations among these dimensions (Huang, 2006; Koufaris, 2002). This shows that they are interchangeable and will covary with each other. They are driven by the same underlying construct as it has the same determinants and consequences. In fact, previous research has also used these dimensions as reflective indicators of flow (Siekpe, 2005; Wang, Baker, Wagner, & Wakefield, 2007). Thus, it is appropriate to integrate these dimensions into a reflective factor known as perceived flow. Table 5 exemplifies that item loadings ranging from 0.848 to 0.685 with item ‘I felt that using this mobile SNS is interesting’ has a relatively highest loading on perceived flow with Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy value of 0.896. Results have suppressed small coefficients of absolute value below 0.50 where item ‘when using this mobile SNS, I felt confused’ was deleted as it does not load heavily to the factor.

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DETERMINANTS OF PERCEIVED FLOW: DATA ANALYSIS

DATA ANALYSIS

Table 2 depicts the socio-demographic profile of 200 respondents with 49% males, and 51% females. The largest age group are from 21 to 25 years, comprising 84% of the entire sample. 160 respondents earn a monthly allowance of lesser than RM 300 and only 20 respondents earn RM 501 and above a month. In terms mobile SNS experiences, 62.5% of the sample group uses mobile SNS between 1 to 5 times in a week. 36 respondents uses mobile SNS more than 15 times a week. 97 respondents have only begun using mobile SNS for a period of 0 to 2 months, while 55 respondents have the experience above 6 months. Only 2 respondents frequently visit MySpace via mobile, and on the extreme side, 147 respondents visit Facebook most frequently. That is equal to 73.5% of the entire sample.

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DETERMINANTS OF PERCEIVED FLOW: PERCEIVED FLOW AND LOYALTY

LOYALTY

Zhou and Lu (2011) stated that flow experience positively affects users’ continuance intention. Because a user finds the flow experience in using a certain mobile SNS to be satisfying, the user will most likely continue the usage which thus promotes loyalty. Deng, Turner, Gehling and Prince (2010) noted that a users’ satisfaction further determines their continuance usage of mobile Internet services. Similarly, Hausman and Siekpe (2009) found that flow affects online consumers’ purchase and return intention in a different study. Understanding the influence of flow on the trusting belief-loyalty relationship can therefore ensure positive loyalty outcomes (Gupta & Kabadayi, 2010). Therefore, it is proposed that:
H7. Perceived flow is a determinant of loyalty.

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DETERMINANTS OF PERCEIVED FLOW: PERCEIVED SYSTEM QUALITY

SYSTEM QUALITY

System quality attributes are relevant to the concept of trust because recent research suggests that technical aspects of IT artifacts affect users’ willingness to trust (Gefen, Pavlou, Benbasat, McKnight, Steward, & Straub, 2006). McKnight, Choudhury, and Kacmar (2002) asserted site quality to be a stronger predictor of trusting beliefs as supported by Vance, Christophe, and Straub (2008) who found that system quality such as navigational structure and visual appeal influences user trust in mobile commerce technologies. Without efficient system quality, provision of quality services is difficult which in turn diminishes flow experiences (Aladwani & Palvia, 2002). Therefore, it is hypothesized:
H3. Perceived system quality of mobile SNS is a determinant of perceived user trust.

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