CUSTOMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS INTERNET BANKING: HYPOTHESES

HYPOTHESES

The following hypothesis were formulated for the study.

H1: Awareness of service (AW) has positive effect on perceived usefulness (PU).

H2: Security (SE) has positive effect on perceptions usefulness (PU).

H3: The quality of Internet connection (QIC) has positive effect on perceived ease of use (PEU).

H4: Computer self efficacy (CSE) has positive effect on perceived ease of use (PEU)

H5: Perceived ease of use (PEU) has positive effect on perceived usefulness (PU).

H6: Perceived ease of use (PEU) had positive effect on perceived enjoyment (PE).

H7: Perceived usefulness (PU) has positive effect on attitude towards using (ATU).

H8: Perceived ease of use (PEU) has positive effect on attitude towards using (ATU).

H9: Perceived enjoyment (PE) had positive effect on attitude towards using (ATU).

H10: Trust (TR) has positive effect on attitude towards using (ATU).

The results show that hypothesis 3 up to 10 are accepted, because it has t statistics above 1.96 (>1.96), but only hypothesis 1 and hypothesis 2 do not comply with the proposed hypothesis because it has t statistics less than 1.96 (<1.96). This proves that awareness of service and security has no significant effect on perceived usefulness. No significant relationship between awareness of service and perceived usefulness is caused by majority internet banking users, This has fairly high awareness of internet banking facility provided by the bank. Yet, this does not affect significantly the perceived usefulness because usefulness can only be felt when internet banking has been used. After using the internet banking, the customers can feel whether the internet banking is useful for them or not and not before using or only from the information perse.

No significant relationship between security and perceived usefulness is caused by majority of respondents. They are not comfortable with the transaction security while using internet banking. Internet banking cannot be perceived by the customers as a system that is completely safe. Customers are considering the security risks to be covered along with its benefits (risk benefit analysis). As a result of these concerns, there are terms that arise among the customers, namely, pure and non-pure internet banking users. Pure internet banking users are customers who utilize all the facilities of internet banking transactions such as check balances, transfer, bill payments, and others. On the contrary, the non-pure internet banking users are customers who use internet banking only for the purpose of checking balances. Majority of respondents are customers of non pure type.

There is a significant relationship between quality of internet connection and perceived ease of use caused by the majority of respondents who have easy and good quality internet connection to access internet banking. This is because internet development in Indonesia is currently on booming stage and many internet service providers provide cheap rates which makes it easier for customers to get a good internet connection at low price. Significant relationship between computer self efficacy and perceived ease of use is caused by the majority of respondents since they have a good enough computer mastery to be able to operate internet banking only by following the instructions provided within the site without having received help from others.

Significant relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness exists because the customers feel the internet banking is east to use. The easier the operation of internet banking, the better it will attract customers to continue using it.

Significant relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment is because the ease of use in operating internet banking will encourage the customer to use internet banking again and again . Interests that arise due to the perceived ease of use make customers happy and enjoy the internet banking.

There is also a significant relationship between perceived usefulness and attitude towards using it. This is because a customer will have a positive acceptance attitude of internet banking when they feel that using it will give benefits for them (Al-Somali, et al. 2008). These results are consistent with the research results conducted by Wang, et al (2003), Al-Somali, et al (2008), and Davis, et al (1989) which stated that there is a significant relationship between perceived Significant relationship between perceived ease of use and attitude towards using internet banking is because customers who feel that it is not easy to use it will tend to have the rejection attitude, But customers will have a positive acceptance attitude of internet banking when they feel that using internet banking is so easy (Reid, Michael and Yair Levy, 2008).

Another significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and attitude towards internet banking .This occurs when a customer enjoys internet banking which encourages them to have an acceptance attitude of it. (Qureshi, et al. 2008). Results of this study do not support the research results conducted by Qureshi, et al (2008) and Pikkarainen, et al (2004) which stated that there is no significant relationship between perceived enjoyment and attitude towards using.

The difference in the results might be due to which the research was carried out have high internet banking adoption rate . Which shows that internet banking usage is already a habit and does not require a perceived enjoyment to establish a positive attitude.

Significant relationship between trust and attitude towards using internet banking was found. This is because internet banking is related to the transfer of specific data that is confidential and has the ability to perform multiple transactions. Customers trust will grow as internet banking can solve all these problems. This trust to encourages a customer to have an acceptance attitude of internet banking.

Significant relationship between attitude towards using internet banking and adoption intention is because the positive attitude that is formed by the customer will determine the decision whether to continue using internet banking or not. Intention to continue using internet banking in the future will arise when a customer has a positive attitude of internet banking.

Table2A Study on Customer Perception1-2

Table 2: Research Instrument

Statistical analysis using the program SmartPLS 2.0 was preceded by validity and reliability test to determine the consistency of measurement tools. This is used to describe whether it has been precise or not with the variables analyzed. The test results show that overall convergent validity indicator in this study meets the requirements of validity because it has a loading factor value above 0.5 (> 0.5), results from validity test as shown in Table 3. While the construct reliability test have also meets internal construct consistency because each construct has a cronbach alpha value above 0.7 (> 0.7) (Ghozali, 2008). The Table 2 is the research instrument that we used in this study including the results of reliability test from each construct.

Table3A Study on Customer Perception1-4

Table4A Study on Customer Perception1-5