Many studies show that BPR is one of the components that can be used to improve organization and enhance performance (Sohail&Daud, 2006; Ahmad, Francis, &Zairi. 2007; Doomon&Jungum, 2008). BPR takes into account one of the current major drivers of change within organizations, which is helping the organization to become more competitive and customer-oriented in a challenging environment. BPR’s concept of reengineering traces its beginning back to management theories development. It is consider one of the ‘tools’ use by the management to make improvements. According to Sohail and Daud, (2006) BPR seeks to fulfill specific objectives and can lead to breakthrough improvements. BPR is also often associated with significant cultural and technologies changes.
SUCCESS FACTORS OF BPR
Even though BPR has many factors that influence success, to be successfully implemented in higher education institutions setting, many authors (Ahmad, Francis, &Zairi, 2007; Ascari, Rock, Dutta, 1995; Peppard& Fitzgerald, 1997) identify four main factors to using the BPR model, which are culture, process, structure and technology. Various combinations of these elements of BPR lead to transformational change and fundamental growth of whole organizations. BPRS’s main elements were being successfully utilized to bring about internal change within certain organization before being package for wider audience like higher learning institutions (Thomas, 1997). Although each component is individually important, all of the factors must be well blend and supported and linked to a higher education background.
The most crucial part in BPR is culture, whereby the organization must shift the culture from strictly providing an education to becoming more business oriented. In order to do this, educational institutions must develop the work ethics of the corporate world. Organization must become more competitive and challenge their employees’ capabilities and skills. There needs to be a drive to develop new skill sets in all employees enabling them to become key players and drivers toward internalization and globalization.
In higher education contexts, process involves services provided to stakeholders. The scope of works varies from the management to teaching delivery. In their day-to-day work, employees tend to follow the standard procedures simply following their general orders and not thinking on how they might improve the flow process. Much of the time bureaucracy is the infrastructure of the organization which makes the process time longer. BPR approach affects the cost and effectiveness. Management should develop alternatives process to solve problems while seeking to consider the critical path of the process and how it will affect the whole organization.
In higher education institutions, structure means organization development. The organization should break down the functioning hierarchies that divide them and instead transfer power to include more cross-functional departments that unify the organization. The structure and work scope also need to be clearly stated. Management should avoid grey areas and overlaps in work function. It is a good practice to periodically analyze and revise and restructure depending on the needs of the ever changing organization.
Technology usage especially, information and communication technology in higher education institutions, has had a huge impact on management. Change in technology requires new ways of thinking and it also impacts how institutions of all kinds manage their employees. The technology movement requires employees to monitor their own work, reduce errors and contribute suggestion for making organizations more competitive (Gilley &Maycunich, 2000).
Although each element mentioned has a vital independent impact on organizational functioning there interrelation is critical. Management needs to understand how theses individual elements work in relationship with one another in order to get the greatest positive impact and the access the greatest level of organizational improvement.