The concept of BPR is similar to what Burke (2008) mentioned in his book, the transformation role in the organization. “Mission and Strategy” and “Leadership and Culture” are factors that drive transformation and which have a direct relationship with the external environment dynamics. The current management structures in Malaysia higher institutions are transactional; employees are required do their day to day works without the investment of thinking about or implementing ways to improve. This cultural perspective, and the transactional model it promotes, carries over into higher education institutions hierarchies.
Management needs to shift from the current transactional model to a transformational model. In BPR, proactive leadership drives change while current positions are reassessed in terms of the changing nature of competition, stakeholders and advancing technologies (Davies, 1997).Thus, higher education institutions should develop their own system of management based on best practices to foster organizational improvement. The organizational systems should align their operating procedures with their organizational direction through the adoption of Quality Management Systems (QMS) which can enable the organization to meet its BPR objectives (Ahmad, Francis, &Zairi, 2007).
Another reform needs to be considering is human resource. In higher education employees are the key assets (Ahmad, Francis &Zairi, 2007). Employees drive an organizations excellence. Organizations need to create a culture and work climate that connects with the contribution of all level of employees. Each higher education institutions must therefore create an environment that fosters a culture of excellence to attract the most able and motivate existing staff (Malaysia Government, 2007). The Malaysian organizational culture most often takes the form of a departmental setup with a vertical, or silo, hierarchical type. The culture focuses on the needs of the management teams and included upper level leaders. It neglects the needs and concerns of the subordinate staff and employees creating a disconnected and dissatisfied community. It is obvious that, because of the isolation of power in this poor management style, the burden goes back to management whereby it holds more responsibility and little accountability.
Prior to improving the internal culture, the management of the organization should study the impact of management culture. They cannot adopt and adapt best practice without thinking about the external environment. In many cases, imported systems and practices failed because they did not take into consideration the unique needs and qualities of the Malaysian culture as a whole or the existing internal hierarchies. The cultural shift needs to be driven by the employees and especially by the management. Once the management overcomes the culture issues, the working climate will change. It will happen only if the employees are a part of the change and are committed to the new culture settings.